A 16-year-old needs a kidney biopsy, but written consent is needed. In which of the following situations can a written consent be obtained without her parents' acknowledgement?


•The patient is an emancipated minor. To be an emancipated minor, the patient must be under 18 years old but be considered an adult by the court.

•To be considered an adult, the patient needs to meet one of the following criteria: graduated high school, married, or legally emancipated.

•The other answer choices have no effect on the patient's legal ability to sign an informed consent document.

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