A 21-year-old male is brought to the ED due to
•Because the client was hypoventilating, PCO2 will be elevated due to C02 retention, causing respiratory acidosis. The bicarb level should be normal because the kidneys would not have had time to compensate.
• Respiratory system is the cause, for ex. hypoventilation
• Increase in PCO2, decrease in pH
• Compensation - Kidneys reabsorb Bicarb (HCO3)
• Caused by loss of bicarb or a buildup of acids, for ex. lactic acidosis, diarrhea, renal failure, ketones, ammonium intoxication. Not caused by respiration.
• HCO3 decreases, pH decreases
• Compensation - hyperventilation to eliminate CO2
• Caused by excessive ventilation
• Decrease in PCO2,
• Compensation - Kidneys excrete HCO3
• Acid (H+) lost from emesis, diuretics. Retention of HCO3 from medications, hyperaldosteronism.
• Increase in HCO3, Increase in pH
• Compensation - Respiratory centers are not stimulated, this leads to hypoventilation and CO2 retention.