A 45-year-old woman is referred to the clinic due to bizarre social interactions and inappropriate anger. When the patient called to schedule her appointment with the nurse, she sounded very energetic and jumped from topic to topic. Upon assessment, which of the following signs and symptoms suggest mania?


•Bipolar disorder is a recurrent mood disorder featuring one or more episodes of mania or mixed episodes of mania and depression.

•Characteristics of mania include inflated self-esteem or grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, pressured speech, flight of ideas, distractibility and increased involvement in goal directed activity.

•During an episode of depression, the person experiences a depressed mood or loss of pleasure in nearly all activities. There can also be changes in appetite or sleep, decreased energy, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, persistent sad or depressive mood and loss of interest in things.

•Seasonal affective disorder is characterized by increased sleep, appetite, interpersonal conflict and irritability beginning in late autumn and abating in spring and summer.

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