A 59-year-old patient was advised to have a prostate-specific antigen blood test. After the PSA screening test was done, the patient asked the nurse what factors increase the risk of prostate cancer. The nurse correctly responds by saying which of the following:

African American race
Folic acid supplementation
Increased levels of dihydrotestosterone


•All of the options are risk factors of prostate cancer except familial adenomatous polyposis, which refers to an inherited disorder characterized by numerous polyps in the epithelium of the large intestine. Familial adenomatous polyposis increases the risk of colon cancer.

•Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in American men. Genetics and age play a role in its development. Other risk factors for prostate cancer include family history, African-American race, increased levels of dihydrotestosterone, and folic acid supplement.

•African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage, and are more than twice as likely to die of prostate cancer as white men

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