A 59-year-old patient was advised to have a prostate-specific antigen blood test. After the PSA screening test was done, the patient asked the nurse what factors increase the risk of prostate cancer. The nurse correctly responds by saying which of the following?

African American race
Age
Family history of prostate cancer
Folic acid supplementation
Hormones

Explanation

• All of the options are risk factors for prostate cancer except familial adenomatous polyposis, which refers to an inherited disorder characterized by numerous polyps in the epithelium of the large intestine. Familial adenomatous polyposis increases the risk of colon cancer.

• Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in American men. Genetics and age (more common in men over the age of 50) play a role in its development. Other risk factors for prostate cancer include family history, African-American race, increased levels of dihydrotestosterone (a hormone that is made from testosterone and is important for prostate growth), and folic acid supplement (1 mg daily).

• African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage, and they are more than twice as likely to die of prostate cancer as Caucasian men.

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