A 75-year-old is seen in the clinic for urinary incontinence. The nurse explains to the patient that urinary incontinence can be caused by:


• Urinary incontinence is not a normal part of aging, so there is usually an underlying condition or problem that is causing it.

• Causes may be classified as gynecological (pelvic organ prolapse, decrease in urethral closure pressure, etc) or systemic conditions (diabetes, neurologic conditions like CVAs and Parkinson’s, or cancer).

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