A client diagnosed with left-sided heart failure has decreased cardiac output related to altered contractility. Which of the following nursing actions are appropriate for improving cardiac pump effectiveness?


• Providing a restful environment decreases the cardiac workload and oxygen demand.

• In clients with decreased cardiac output, increased fluid volume is not well tolerated by poorly functioning ventricles.

• Monitoring orthostatic hypotension and daily weights assesses for fluid status.

• Monitoring for dyspnea at rest assesses the degree of symptoms and signs or worsening condition.

• The client should be placed in semi- or High-Fowler's position with legs down to decrease the work of breathing and to decrease venous return and preload.

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