A client who underwent pneumonectomy two days ago has the nursing diagnosis of ineffective airway clearance related to increased secretions and decreased coughing effectiveness due to pain. Which among the following nursing care interventions can help the client achieve effective airway clearance? 


•Patients should be placed upright to help lung expansion and facilitate ventilation with minimal effort. Lateral positioning should be avoided due to risk of compressing remaining lung because the mediastinum is no longer held in place on both sides by lung tissue.

•Closed-chest drainage is not used after pneumonectomy because there is no lung to reexpand.

•Increasing the volume of air in the lungs promotes expulsion of secretions.

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