A client with an elevated temperature, fatigue, and labored breathing is admitted with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Which of the following nursing interventions should be started to assist with airway clearance?


•The supine position causes organs to shift towards the chest, restricting deep breathing. Placing the patient in semi-Fowler's position allows for maximum chest expansion.

•Frequently changing sides allows maximum expansion on alternate sides of the chest.

•Deep breathing encourages oxygenation before controlled coughing.

•The orthopneic position is an adaptation of the High Fowler's position and helps the client in exhaling as he can press the lower part of his chest against the table.

•Adequate hydration helps the patient expectorate mucus by thinning out pulmonary excretions.

•Incentive spirometry helps maximize inhalations and exhalations.

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