A client with an elevated temperature, fatigue, and labored breathing is admitted with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Which of the following nursing interventions should be started to assist with airway clearance?


•Incentive spirometry helps maximize inhalations and exhalations.

•Frequently changing sides allows maximum expansion on alternate sides of the chest.

•Deep breathing encourages oxygenation before controlled coughing.

•Adequate hydration helps the patient expectorate mucus by thinning out pulmonary excretions.

•The orthopneic position does not need to be prevented. This is an adaptation of the high-Fowler's position and helps the client in exhaling as he or she can press the lower part of their chest against the table.

•The supine position causes organs to shift towards the chest, restricting deep breathing. Placing the patient in semi-Fowler's position allows for maximum chest expansion.

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