•This patient is in Diabetic ketoacidosis. This is supported by his history of type 1 diabetes, the fact he was found unconscious, and his fruity breath.
•You would expect a low pH due to acidosis, a normal PCO2 (if uncompensated) or low PCO2 (if compensated), and a low HCO3 since this is metabolic in origin.
•Respiratory system is the cause
•Increase in PCO2, decrease in pH
•Compensation- kidneys reabsorb Bicarb (HCO3)
•Caused by loss of bicarb or a build up of acids- lactic acidosis, diarrhea, renal failure, ketones, or ammonium intoxication. Not caused by respiration.
•HCO3 decreases, pH decreases
•Compensation- hyperventilation to eliminate CO2