A nurse is caring for a client with fluid overload. The nurse knows that the typical findings in a client with fluid excess include which of the following?


• Fluid overload, or hypervolemia, is an abnormal increase in the volume of blood plasma with an increase in total body water.

• Typical findings of fluid overload include a plasma osmolity of less than 275 mOsm/kg from hemodilution, hematocrit less than 45%, specific gravity of less than 1.010, BUN level of less than 8 mg/dL and not more than 20 mg/dL, and a plasma sodium level of less than 135 mEq/L, depending on the type of fluid excess.

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