A nurse is gathering a patient's health history during the admission process. The patient is taking hydrochlorothiazide but is unsure of the reason. The nurse informs the patient that hydrochlorothiazide is for the treatment of:
• Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a thiazide diuretic that is used to treat hypertension and edema. Its common side effects include hypokalemia, hyperuricemia, glucose intolerance, hypotension and hyperlipidemia.
• HCTZ lowers blood pressure by inhibiting sodium and chloride resorption at the distal convoluted tubule in the kidneys. The decreased resorption of these electrolytes leads to increased fluid loss in the urine (the diuretic effect) and results in lower cardiac output (due to decreased venous return) and, therefore, lower blood pressure.
•Hydrochlorothiazide is not used to treat diabetes (high blood glucose), arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), or hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol)