A patient comes to the clinic stating that she may be pregnant. The nurse knows that a pregnancy can be confirmed by

hCG blood test


• There are only three positive signs that are used to confirm pregnancy: fetal heart sounds heard by doppler ultrasound, ultrasound visualization of the fetus, or fetal movements palpated by the examiner.

• Presumptive signs of pregnancy are those that are least indicative of pregnancy. Taken as single entities, they could indicate other conditions. They are largely subjective in that they are experienced by the woman. Presumptive signs include amenorrhea and quickening.

• Probable signs of pregnancy can be objectively seen and documented by the examiner. Although they are more than the presumptive signs, they still are not positive or true diagnostic findings. An example is a positive home pregnancy test or serum hCG test.

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