A patient is admitted to the emergency department due to unexplained lethargy. The nurse notes that the patient's breath has a fruity odor and suspects


• During ketoacidosis, the patient develops fruity breath from the volatile nature of ketones.

• Intestinal obstruction causes breath with a fecal odor.

• Chronic kidney failure can cause a fishy-like odor.

Idiopathic postprandial syndrome is not associated with unusual breath odor.

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