A patient is admitted to the hospital for respiratory distress. The nurse suspects pneumonia because of the presence of which of the following?


•Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include fever, productive cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, increased respiratory rate, and chills.

•Bronchophony is assessed by having the patient say the words "ninety-nine" or "Mickey Mouse" in a normal voice while you listen over the posterior lung fields with your stethoscope. Normal bronchophony is present if you are unable to distinguish what the patient is saying. 

•Abnormal bronchophony is present if the words the patient is saying can be heard clearly through your stethoscope due to consolidation (because air does not transmit sounds as clearly as an area of consolidation), such as in the case of pneumonia.

•The remaining answer choices do not describe the common symptoms of pneumonia.

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