•Because the patient went some time without breathing, PCO2 will be elevated do to retention, causing respiratory acidosis.
•Respiratory system is the cause, for ex. hypoventilation
•Increase in PCO2, decrease in pH
•Compensation - Kidneys reabsorb Bicarb (HCO3)
•Caused by loss of bicarb or a build up of acids, for ex. lactic acidosis, diarrhea, renal failure, ketones, ammonium intoxication. Not caused by respiration.
•HCO3 decreases, pH decreases
•Compensation - hyperventilation to eliminate CO2
•Caused by excessive ventilation
•Decrease in PCO2, increase in pH
•Compensation - Kidneys excrete HCO3
•Acid (H+) lost from emesis, diuretics. Retention of HCO3 from medications, hyperaldosteronism
•Increase in HCO3, Increase in pH
•Compensation - Respiratory centers are not stimulated, this leads to hypoventilation and CO2 retention