A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is receiving discharge instructions from the nurse. The nurse should include which of the following to be avoided by the patient?
•Fumes from chemicals, cigarette smoking, and cold air can irritate the respiratory tract and cause exacerbations.
•Exercise and stairs should not be avoided unless they cause intense strain.
•People do not need to be avoided unless they have a respiratory infection.
•Maintaining current vaccinations helps prevent exacerbations. Patients with COPD should receive an influenza vaccination annually and pneumonia vaccinations when indicated.