A patient with heart failure (HF) due to systolic dysfunction is being educated by the nurse on ACE inhibitors. The nurse correctly explains by saying:


• Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are medicines that treat heart, blood vessel, and kidney problems. Some examples include: Captopril, Ramipril, Enalapril, Lisinopril, and Perindopril

• Though the reasons are not fully understood, numerous trials have found that therapy with ACE inhibitors significantly improves exercise capacity in patients with HF

• ACE inhibitors improve lung function by increasing alveolar-capillary membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary vascular function in patients with HF

• Some side effects associated with ACE inhibitors include hypotension, acute renal failure, and hyperkalemia

• Up to 20% of patients taking ACE inhibitors develop a dry hacking cough, which can be effectively treated with NSAIDs

• ACE inhibitors are contraindicated in pregnancy since they are associated with an increased incidence of fetal complications

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