A patient with renal failure has developed uremic syndrome. While assessing this patient, the nurse would expect to note which of the following?


• Uremic syndrome, also called uremia, is the accumulation of nitrogenous waste in the blood, seen in patients with chronic kidney disease or acute kidney injury. Dialysis is often required to relieve symptoms until and unless kidney function can be restored.

Uremic syndrome causes oliguria, edema, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, and other electrolyte imbalances, diminished mental status, and fatigue.  Stomatitis (inflammation of the lips or mucosal membranes) although rare, may also be caused by uremia.

• Polyuria is excessive urination and is not expected.

• Hypercalcemia is not expected, but hypocalcemia is often seen due to disruption of the Vitamin D and calcium metabolic pathway and increased parathyroid levels, leading to osteodystrophy as calcium is leached from the bones to replace low calcium levels over time.

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