A post-operative patient has an IV of 0.9% NaCl D5W infusing. The nurse understands that the the type of maintenance IV fluid given is based on the type of fluid volume deficit. The nurse correctly identifies which of the following as categories of fluid volume deficits?

Hypertonic
Hypotonic
Isotonic

Explanation

• An extracellular fluid volume deficit refers to dehydration from insufficient intake of fluids or excessive fluid loss

Fluid volume deficits can be categorized as:

• Hypertonic, or hyperosmolar fluid volume deficit, means there is greater water loss than electrolyte or sodium loss

• Isotonic, or iso-osmolar fluid volume deficit, means there is equal losses between water and electrolyte or sodium

• Hypotonic fluid volume deficit means that electrolyte loss is greater than fluid loss which is rare

• Although hypernatremia is the result of fluid loss, traumatic volume loss generally is isotonic

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