A student nurse is assessing the vital signs of a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis. The student nurse notes that the rate and depth of the patient's respiration is increased. The student nurse recognizes that this type of breathing pattern is:


• Kussmaul’s breathing is a compensation to eliminate CO2 in the body due to metabolic acidosis. It is described as hyperventilation with an increased rate and depth

• Cheyne-Stokes respiration commonly occurs in patients with CHF, increased ICP and drug overdose. Breathing becomes progressively deeper and faster, followed by periods of apnea. This cycle repeats

• Cluster breathing, or Biot's repiration, is characterized by groups of quick, shallow breaths followed by periods of apnea. This is usually seen in patients with medulla damage and indicates a poor prognosis

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