A woman with HIV recently gave birth to a baby boy. She asked the nurse why her baby is infected. Which of the following can be a reason for transmission from the mother to the child?


•Mother to child transmission of HIV can occur through the placenta, during delivery, and through breast milk.

•HIV positive mothers should take antiretroviral medications throughout pregnancy and should avoid breastfeeding. Infants are then administered antiretrovirals to lower the risk.

•Receiving contaminated blood does not pertain to the question of mother-baby transmission. 

•Contaminated instruments are not used in hospitals, but the mother's own blood and body fluids are a source of transmission during the birth process. This does not count as 'contamination,' though.

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