After administering morphine sulfate 3 hours ago, the patient complains of rapid onset pain rated at 8 out of 10. The nurse would consider this to be:


•Breakthrough pain comes on suddenly, lasts for short periods, and is not relieved by the patient's normal pain management.

•Referred pain is felt at distance from the stimulus.

•Neuropathic pain is caused by damage to a nerve, but is felt in the area that nerve intervates.

•Inflammatory pain is caused by the stretch or distention of sensitive tissue.

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