The mother of a 2-year-old expresses frustration due to her daughter's refusal to follow her directions. The nurse explains that this behavior is normal for her age as she is trying to meet which developmental need?


• Toddlers often use the word "no" and struggle to assert their independence.

• Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (age 18 months to 3 years).

• Erikson said that parents must allow children to explore the limits of their abilities in an environment that is tolerant of failure.

• If children are supported in their independence, they become confident and secure in their ability to survive in the world (autonomy). If they are criticized or overly controlled, they develop low self-esteem or feel inadequate (shame and doubt).

Erikson's stages of psychosocial development:
• Basic trust vs mistrust (0-18 mos)

• Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18 mos-3 yrs)

• Initiative vs. guilt (3-6)

• Industry vs. inferiority (6-12)

• Identity vs. role confusion (13-19)

• Intimacy vs. isolation (20-39)

• Generativity vs. stagnation (40-64)

• Ego integrity vs. despair (65-death)

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