The mother of an 8-year-old expresses surprise that her son is finally becoming more cooperative and understanding the consequences of his actions. This describes which of the following stages of development?


•School aged children become more cooperative and reasonable. They better understand cause and effect, as well as time and space.

Erikson's stages of psychosocial development:

•Basic trust vs mistrust (0-2 years)

•Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (2-4)

•Initiative vs. guilt (4-5)

•Industry vs. inferiority (5-12)

•Identity vs. role confusion (13-19)

•Intimacy vs. isolation (20-24)

•Generativity vs. Stagnation (25-64)

•Ego integrity vs. despair (65-death)

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