The nurse assesses a patient suspected of having a pleural effusion. Which of the following are the most common clinical manifestations of this condition?


•A pleural effusion is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space.

•Pleural effusions present with pleuritic pain, dry nonproductive cough, dyspnea on exertion, tachycardia, and diminished breath sounds of the affected area.

•Pleural friction rub, which is identified by abnormal sounds heard during inspiration and expiration that range from squeaking to crackling, or grating, is a hallmark sign of pleural effusions, but it is less common.

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