The nurse is caring for a 5-year-old who has frequent involuntary urination at night. The child is diagnosed with nocturnal enuresis. What is the most likely cause?


• In young children, nocturnal enuresis is primarily a problem of delayed or incomplete neuromuscular maturation of the bladder. The condition is benign and self-limiting. Up to 20% of 5-year-olds have nocturnal enuresis. No treatment is required.

Incorrect options:

• Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are suspected as the cause of enuresis after a child is old enough to control the bladder. UTIs can also cause enuresis in adults.

• Psychological stress may cause enuresis, but it is not the leading cause.

• Vesicoureteral reflux is the reversal of urine flow back into the kidneys. This generally does not cause enuresis.

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