The nurse is caring for a client with sepsis due to acute Clostridium
• Metabolic acidosis from the formation of lactic acid causes an alteration in serum HCO3− and is common during sepsis. The client's pH will be expected to be low (acidosis) with a low HC03.
• The PC02 will be normal only until respiratory compensation begins, at which time the lungs will begin to attempt to balance the pH by increasing respirations to blow off excess C02, which will
• Initial laboratory evaluation of acid-base disorders
• Respiratory system is the cause, ex. hypoventilation
• Increase in PCO2,
• Compensation - Kidneys reabsorb Bicarb (HCO3)
• Caused by loss of bicarb or build up of acids, ex. lactic acidosis, diarrhea, renal failure, ketones, ammonium intoxication; not caused by respiration.
• HCO3 decreases, pH decreases
• Compensation- hyperventilation to eliminate CO2
• Caused by excessive ventilation
• Decrease in PCO2,
• Compensation - Kidneys excrete HCO3
• Acid (H+) loss from emesis, diuretics. Or retention of HCO3 from medications, hyperaldosteronism
• Increase in HCO3, Increase in pH
• Compensation - Respiratory centers are not stimulated, this leads to hypoventilation and CO2 retention.