The nurse is caring for a male patient with a hemoglobin level of 12.3 g/dL. The nurse would expect this hemoglobin level to be caused by


• The normal range of hemoglobin in males is 14–18 g/dL. Chronic renal failure can cause decreased hemoglobin formation due to insufficient erythropoietin production.

• Diabetes and hyperthyroidism are not associated with anemia.

• Anemia can occur during menstruation due to blood loss; however, the patient in this scenario is a male.

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