The nurse is caring for a patient immediately following a kidney transplant. As the patient starts to develop a hyperacute rejection, the nurse should prepare the patient for:


• A hyperacute rejection manifests immediately and can lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) if not treated immediately. It can only be treated by removal of the organ

• Acute rejection occurs in all transplants to some degree unless immunosuppression is achieved. It occurs one week to several years after the transplant. It is treated with immunosuppression, antibodies, or bone marrow transplant

• Chronic rejection is usually considered untreatable except for retransplant. Inhaled cyclosporine is believed to delay or prevent chronic rejection

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