The nurse is caring for a patient with chronic renal failure. The nurse would recognize which of the following as common complications of the disease?
• Hypertension is common in patients with CRF. Several mechanisms contribute to hypertension, including volume overload, sympathetic stimulation, and renin-stimulation. Hypertension can cause kidney damage and kidney damage can worsen hypertension, so it is cyclical in nature
• Anemia results from impaired erythropoietin production
• Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities occur due to the inability of the kidneys to properly filter and excrete – specifically the ability to maintain a homeostatic relationship between sodium and fluid balance
• Hypertension is common in CRF and can lead to heart failure
• Angina is not a side effect of CRF. It indicates reduced cardiac oxygen supply
• Hypotension and tachycardia are not associated with CRF