The nurse is caring for a patient with chronic renal failure. The nurse would recognize which of the following as common complications of the disease?


• Hypertension is common in patients with CRF. Several mechanisms contribute to hypertension, including volume overload, sympathetic stimulation, and renin-stimulation. Hypertension can cause kidney damage and kidney damage can worsen hypertension, so it is cyclical in nature

• Anemia results from impaired erythropoietin production

• Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities occur due to the inability of the kidneys to properly filter and excrete – specifically the ability to maintain a homeostatic relationship between sodium and fluid balance

• Hypertension is common in CRF and can lead to heart failure

• Angina is not a side effect of CRF. It indicates reduced cardiac oxygen supply

• Hypotension and tachycardia are not associated with CRF

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