The nurse is performing a physical assessment on a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Which of the following signs and symptoms should the nurse expect to find?


COPD is the pattern of chronic airway obstruction and chronic inflammatory response that is often preventable and usually progressive.

•Signs and symptoms of COPD include clubbed fingers and toes, dyspnea on exertion, barrel chest, increased respiratory rate, and prolonged expiratory phase.

•Fever is not associated with COPD, but may indicate an active infection.

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