The nurse is providing instructions to a 67-year-old woman diagnosed with bladder cancer. The daughter of the patient asks the nurse which risk factor contributes most to bladder cancer. The nurse correctly responds by saying
•Smoking greatly increases the risk of developing bladder cancer. Smokers are at least 3 times more likely to develop bladder cancer.
•Although there have been reductions in the concentrations of tar and nicotine in cigarette smoke, there have been apparent increases in the concentrations of certain carcinogens associated with bladder cancer.
•Women who had radiation therapy to treat cervical cancer have an increased risk of developing bladder cancer but current cigarette smokers have a higher risk of bladder cancer.
•A long-term (chronic) bladder infection or irritation may lead to certain types of bladder cancer.
•Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women.