Which of the following defects refers to the incomplete closure of the umbilical ring resulting in the protrusion of the
• An umbilical hernia is a protrusion of a portion of the intestine through the umbilical ring, muscle, and fascia surrounding the umbilical cord. This creates a bulging protrusion under the skin at the umbilicus.
• Umbilical hernias occur most frequently in African-American children and more often in girls than in boys. The structure is generally 1 to 2 cm in diameter, but it may be as big as an orange when children cry or strain. If the defect is more than 2 cm, surgery for repair is indicated to prevent intestinal strangulation or obstruction. This is usually done when the child is 4 to 6 years of age, and a surgical mesh may be implanted to reinforce the abdominal wall and keep the intestines inside the cavity.
• Inguinal hernias result from the incomplete closure of the tube (processus vaginalis) between the abdomen and the scrotum, leading to the descent of a portion of the intestine.
• Noncommunicating hydroceles have residual peritoneal fluid trapped within the lower segment of the processus vaginalis. A communicating hydrocele is commonly associated with hernias because the processus vaginalis remains open from the scrotum to the abdominal cavity.