• Serological assays, generally used for adults, are not reliable in infants because maternal HIC antibodies can be present for up to 18 months.
• PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests for HIV DNA and RNA. This test is externally validated and recommended for the diagnosis of infants.
• Particle agglutination is a test used to detect syphilis in adults.
• ELISA used to be the choice for diagnosing HIV followed by a confirmatory Western blot, but it's no longer recommended by the CDC as more accurate later generation tests are now available.