While educating a patient recently diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the nurse should include which of the following non-pharmacological interventions?

Avoid spicy foods.
Elevate the head of the bed.
Lose weight.
Stop smoking.


• Lifestyle modifications that can improve symptoms of GERD include weight loss, elevating the head of bed, smoking cessation, and avoiding spicy foods, alcohol, chocolate, and caffeine.

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