•Meningeal irritability is assessed by illiciting a positive Brudzinski’s and Kernig’s signs, as well as an inability to flex the neck forward (nuchal rigidity).
•Brudzinski’s sign: after forced flexion of the neck there is a reflex flexion of the hip and knee and abduction of the leg.
•Kernig’s sign: After flexing the hip and knee at 90 degree angles, pain and resistance are noted.
•Cullen's sign is the presence of superficial edema and bruising around the umbilicus. It is suggestive of acute pancreatitis or an intraabdominal bleed.
•Ortolani's sign is a distinctive "clunk" heard after flexing and abducting a newborns hips. This is indicative of hip dysplasia.
•McBurney's sign is deep tenderness or pain at McBurney's point, one-third the distance from the right anterior iliac spine and the navel. This is indicative of acute appendicitis.