•An elevated head of bed promotes lung expansion and can improve ventilation.
•When using a non-rebreather face mask, the flow rate should be 10-12 LPM to ensure that the reservoir bag is filled with oxygen and not with carbon dioxide exhaled by the patient.
•Nasal cannula: 1-6 LPM. At 4 LPM, approx 32% O2 is provided.
•Simple face mask: 6-10 LPM at 40-60% O2, but must be over 5 LPM to flush expired CO2 from
•Venturi "Venti" mask: 4-8 LPM at 24-40% O2 at low flow or 10-12 LPM at 50% O2 at high flow.
•Nonrebreathing mask (NRB): 6-12 LPM. Provides 95% O2 with