A nurse knowledgeable about sinoatrial node dysrhythmias would select which of the following causes of sinus tachycardia?

Emotional and physical stress
Heart failure


• Sinus tachycardia (ST) is defined as a sinus rhythm with a rate of greater than 100 beats per minute. Causes of ST include: fever, emotional & physical stress, heart failure, fluid volume loss, hyperthyroidism, hypercalcemia, caffeine, nicotine, exercise, and some medications.

• In the vast majority of cases, sinus tachycardia results from some underlying conditions such as exercise, infection, or congestive heart failure, which alter the autonomic nervous system.

• Sinus bradycardia may result from the following: Valsalva's maneuver, drugs like digitalis, MI, hyperkalemia, hypothyroidism, severe hypoxia, and increased ICP.

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