The mother of an 8-year-old expresses surprise that her son is finally becoming more cooperative and understanding the consequences of his actions. This describes which of the following stages of development?

Industry vs. inferiority

Explanation

• School-aged children become more cooperative and reasonable. They better understand cause and effect, and they feel the desire to win approval by becoming competent in ways that are valued by society.

• Industry vs. inferiority (6-12).

• If their initiative is encouraged, they feel industrious and confident and begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments (industry).

• If this initiative is restricted, the child begins to feel inferior, doubting his abilities (inferiority).

Erikson's stages of psychosocial development:
• Basic trust vs mistrust (0-18 mos)

• Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18 mos-3 yrs)

• Initiative vs. guilt (3-6)

• Industry vs. inferiority (6-12)

• Identity vs. role confusion (13-19)

• Intimacy vs. isolation (20-39)

• Generativity vs. stagnation (40-64)

• Ego integrity vs. despair (65-death)

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