The nurse is caring for a 5-year-old who has frequent involuntary urination at night. She is diagnosed with nocturnal enuresis. What is the most likely cause?


•In young children, nocturnal enuresis is primarily a problem of delayed or incomplete neuromuscular maturation of the bladder. The condition is benign and self-limiting. Up to 20% of 5-year-olds have nocturnal enuresis.

•UTIs may cause enuresis after a child is old enough to control the bladder. This also can occur in adults.

•Psychological stress may cause enuresis, but it is not the leading cause.

•Vesicoureteral reflux is the reversal of urine flow back into the kidneys. This generally does not cause enuresis.

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