•Tuburlarized urethroplasty is a common surgical technique used to repair hypospadias by using penile skin as a graft for the urethra.
•Hypospadias is a urethral defect in which the urethral opening is not the at the end of the penis but on the ventral aspect of the penis.
•Orchiopexy is a surgical procedure for undescended testes.
•Orchiectomy is removal of the testis due to a malignancy.
•Sclerotherapy is an injection of a drug to decrease the size of blood vessels.