The nurse is caring for a patient diagnosed with infective endocarditis. The patient has a history of intravenous (IV) illicit drug use. Physical exam is likely to reveal which of the following?


• Common signs and symptoms of infective endocarditis include fever, malaise, murmur, weight loss, splinter hemorrhages, and Osler's nodes.

• Splinter hemorrhages run vertically under the fingernails and are thought to be caused by small clots that damage the capillaries in the nail bed.

• Infective endocarditis most commonly occurs in IV drug users. Other risk factors are rheumatic fever, history of heart valve replacement, or dental procedures.

• Pericardial friction rub is associated with pericarditis.

• Paradoxical pulse is most likely caused by cardiac tamponade.

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