The nurse is educating a patient recently diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The patient asks about the cause of this disorder. The nurse informs the patient that the cause is


• Research has shown a genetic link and has identified different genes associated with this disorder.

• Several physiological factors have been identified, such as variations in brain structure, neuron hypersensitivity, and abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

• Environmental factors play a key role in precipitating bipolar disorder. Stressful events, emotional trauma, and drug abuse are known precipitating factors.

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