The nurse is infusing blood products into a patient with anemia. The patient suddenly complains of itching and chest pain. The nurse notes urticaria and hypotension. Which type of hypersensitivity reaction is occuring?


• The patient is suffering from an acute hemolytic reaction. This occurs from an incompatible blood transfusion

• Rapid destruction of the donor red blood cells by host antibodies may result in acute renal failure or death

• A type I hypersensitivity reaction is an immediate allergic reaction involving IgE. Examples include anaphylaxis, angioedema, allergic conjunctivitis, and hay fever

• A type II hypersensitivity reaction involves IgG and IgM bind to antigens, activating the complement pathway. This leads to cell lysis. Examples include ABO incompatibility, drug-induced hemolytic anemia, and goodpasture's syndrome

• A type III hypersensitivity reaction involves antigen-antibody complexes that are not adequately cleared, leading to an inflammatory response. Examples include lupus and post-steptococcal glomerulonephritis

• A type IV hypersensitivity reaction, also called a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, involves sensitized T-cells and takes several days to develop. Examples include contact dermatitis, transplant rejection, and multiple sclerosis

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