The nurse is reviewing radiographic images of a patient with schizophrenia. The nurse should be alert for which of the following brain changes?


• With the development of noninvasive imaging techniques, scientists have been able to study the brain structure and activity of people with schizophrenia. Findings have demonstrated that people with schizophrenia have relatively less brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid compared to normal people.

• The research consistently shows decreased brain volume and abnormal brain function in the frontal and temporal areas of persons with schizophrenia. This pathology correlates with the positive and negative signs of schizophrenia. It is unknown if these changes in the frontal and temporal lobes are the result of the failure of these areas to develop properly or if a virus, trauma, or immune responses have damaged them.

• CT scans have shown enlarged ventricles and cortical atrophy. PET studies suggest that glucose metabolism and oxygen are diminished in the frontal cortical structures of the brain.

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