The nurse is providing discharge instructions to a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The nurse should include instructions on breathing exercises that involve


•The diaphragm tends to be flat in COPD due to hyperinflation of the lungs. Diaphragmatic breathing exercises assist in strengthening breathing ability.

•Exhalation should be longer than inhalation.

•Exhalation should be done through pursed lips.

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